Since the energy crisis occurred in the 1970s, people have begun to apply solar cells to general livelihood purposes. At present, in countries such as the United States, Japan and Israel, solar energy installations have been widely used and are moving towards the goal of commercialization. Among these countries, the United States established the world’s largest solar power plant in California in 1983, which can generate up to 16 MW of electricity. South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and other countries in southern Africa have also set up programs to encourage the installation of low-cost solar cell power systems in remote rural areas. The most active country in the implementation of solar power generation is Japan. In 1994, Japan implemented the subsidy and incentive method to promote the “mains parallel solar photovoltaic power system” of 3000 W per household. In the first year, the government subsidizes 49% of the funds, and the subsidy thereafter decreases year by year. “Mains parallel type solar photovoltaic power system” is when the sunshine is sufficient, the solar cell provides electricity to the load of the home, and if there is excess electricity, it will be stored separately. When the power generation is insufficient or does not generate electricity, the required power is provided by the power company. By 1996, 2,600 households in Japan had installed solar power generation systems, with a total installed capacity of 8 MW. A year later, there were 9,400 installations, with a total installed capacity of 32 MW. In recent years, due to the rising awareness of environmental protection and the government’s subsidy system, it is estimated that the demand for household solar cells in Japan will also increase rapidly. In terms of industry, the total output of solar cells in Japan in 1999 was 86 MW, and in 2000 it had increased to 120 MW, ranking first in the world for two consecutive years. Recently, many Japanese solar cell manufacturers, such as Sharp Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, have expanded their production plants. In the United States, the “Million Roofs Solar Power” plan proposed by former President Clinton is planned to be completed before 2010. The construction of 1 million solar power generation systems has been completed. In addition to Japan and the United States, Detong also started in 1990. Begin to implement the home-based plan, each household’s installed capacity of solar power is 15 kW, and the government will subsidize 70% of the funds. By 1995. 2,250 households have installed solar energy systems, with a total installed capacity of 5.6 MW. In addition, the Dutch government expects that the total installed capacity of solar energy systems can reach 1,450 MW in 2020. Other countries, such as Switzerland, Norway and Australia, have also implemented plans to install thousands of solar cells each year. in Taiwan, China. At present, the main manufacturers of solar cells include Guanghua, Motech and Shilin Electric. Guanghua Development Technology Co., Ltd. has been mainly producing amorphous silicon solar cells since 1988. Mainly used in super-eliminating electronic products, such as sub-tables, calculators, etc.
In 1999, Moody Corporation began to set up a factory in the same district of Tainan Science and Industry. It mainly produces solar cells of polycrystalline silicon and monocrystalline silicon. Shihlin Electric has also sent a research and development team to the United States for training to learn the manufacturing and packaging technology of solar panels used by satellites. At the same time, after the successful launch of China Satellite 1 in 1999, it further invested in the research and development of solar cells for people’s livelihood. In addition, the Institute of Materials of Industrial Technology Research Institute has also successfully developed the manufacturing and packaging technology of solar cells, and transferred the technology to Moody Corporation and Shihlin Electric Company to promote the solar power generation business. In recent years, Taiwanese manufacturers have gradually become interested in investing in the solar cell business. The main reason is that in addition to the shortage of supply in the international market, another factor is that Taiwan has vigorously promoted solar cell power generation since 1999, and started to promote various incentives. As a result, the number of companies investing in this business has also increased significantly. At present, there are still some difficulties in the implementation of solar power generation in Taiwan. The main reason is that it is obviously much more convenient to apply for utility power compared to the application procedures for general utility power and solar power generation, and the installation of solar power generation must first be invested in a funds. Based on economic considerations, it is indeed difficult for the general public to accept. even so. Look at it from another angle. Taiwan has favorable conditions such as abundant sunshine, sound development of semiconductor and power electronics industries, and strong official promotion, plus possible tourism, crisis, and popularization of environmental awareness. The solar power generation business indeed has a very large space for development in Taiwan. I believe that as long as the manufacturing cost can be greatly reduced. It can occupy a place in the field of solar power generation in the world.
In addition, the development and use of solar energy. The inability to generate electricity at night is a major disadvantage of solar cells. But for this shortcoming, scientists use two ways to overcome. The first way is to convert sunlight energy during the day into other forms of energy for storage, such as batteries, flywheel devices, pumped storage power plants, etc., and release the stored energy at night. Another way is the “satellite solar power station” (SPSS) that the United States and Japan are working on Places, such as near the equator, launch satellites with solar cells or thermal power generation systems, and use artificial satellites to absorb solar energy in space to generate electricity. Due to the avoidance of factors such as day and night, temperature difference and climate, artificial satellites can continuously and stably receive solar energy, convert it into electrical energy, and then transmit it back to the earth in the form of microwaves. After being received by the earth’s microwave receiving station, it is converted back into electrical energy. delivered to various places. Currently. Because scientists continue to study. Coupled with the advancement of semiconductor industry technology, the efficiency of solar cells is gradually increasing, and the unit cost of power generation systems is also decreasing year by year. Therefore, as the efficiency of solar cells increases and the cost decreases, the use of solar cells will become more and more common.
The solar cell technology has been transferred from the space technology application in the 1950s to the general commercial use of people’s livelihood. With the reduction of cost and environmental protection considerations, the use of monocrystalline silicon solar cells has become more and more common. The main applications are as follows.
(1) Household power generation system 5 from 20W to tens of thousands of watts. Depends on demand.
Located in California, USA, it was built in 1983 and completed in 1986. It is a 6 MW PV power plant; there are more than 20 relatively small-scale PV systems. It has also been successively adopted by many power companies in the past 10 years, as an experimental auxiliary device or installed on residential roofs to provide household electricity. A 6-year PV experiment program of the New England Electric Power Company (NEES) selected some residential buildings to install 2.2 kW C 10 pieces of 220 W) PV photovoltaic panels. The result is an average saving of about 50% of summer electricity bills. And users respond well. The Sacramento Electric Power Company in California) installed and tried two 1000 kW PV systems from 1984 to 1986 in accordance with the requirements of local residents to pay attention to ambient air quality; since 1993, a large number of medium-scale PV systems have been installed, and the total installed capacity has now over 3.7 MW .
The application of solar photovoltaic power generation system is quite extensive, with different application occasions. The system architecture is also different. For example, systems used in remote areas without electricity are stand-alone systems. In areas where there is electricity, the utility power parallel system can be used. When the power generated by the solar power generation system is greater than the load power, the excess power can be sent back.
The independent solar power generation system mainly includes solar cell modules, charge controllers, batteries, converters and lighting loads. The solar cell first converts light energy into direct current, then charges the battery through the charge controller, and finally converts the direct current into alternating current through the converter to supply the lighting load. The solar power independent system has three possible operation modes: ① When the output power of the solar cell is greater than the load power, the excess power will be stored in the storage battery; otherwise. When the output power of the solar cell is less than the load power, the insufficient power will be provided by the battery. ② Add ATS between the converter and the load. There are two power sources for the load, one is the solar photovoltaic power generation system. One is the power system. When the power of the photovoltaic power generation system is sufficient to supply the load, the photovoltaic power generation system supplies the load power; when the power of the photovoltaic photovoltaic power generation system is insufficient, the ATS switches to the power system instead of the power system. This ensures that the load has an adequate source of power. ③ Integrate the charge controller with the converter.
(2) Traffic: electric vehicles, charging systems, road lighting systems and traffic signals.
(3) High-power solar power generation system.
(4) Agriculture: Power systems such as irrigation and pumping
(5) Telecommunications and communications: wireless power, wireless communications.
(6) Backup power: disaster recovery.
(7) Power supply for low-power commodities.
(8) Outdoor positioning monitoring system: electronic bus stop signs, billboards, etc.
The traditional energy sources that people mainly rely on today are limited. It is estimated that the remaining oil reserves are 1,033.8 billion barrels, which can be used for 43 years; the natural gas reserves are 146M, which can be used for 62 years; the coal reserves are 9,841.2 billion tons, which can be used for 230 years; the uranium reserves are 395 million. 10,000 tons can be used for 64 years. In addition, in recent years, as the issue of global warming has been paid attention to by countries all over the world, major countries in the world have actively developed clean renewable energy such as solar photovoltaic energy to replace fuel power generation in recent years, in order to alleviate the pollution problems caused by traditional power generation methods. Therefore, increasing the development and use of solar photovoltaic energy is an important direction for human life and survival. The solar photovoltaic industry is one of the most important energy technologies in the 21st century. Many companies have vigorously developed and promoted them. Many companies have also expanded their production capacity. In the past five years, the global solar cell production has grown at an average annual growth rate of more than 30%. , showing its unlimited development potential in the field of renewable clean energy. Taiwan has a complete semiconductor industry base and excellent conditions for the development of solar cells. Due to the promotion of policies and the vigorous development of the world market. At present, the solar cell industry has gradually emerged. Integrate related capital, technology, equipment and other manufacturers and research units, and cooperate with each other to develop competitive product technology. in order to enhance international competitiveness. To build a sustainable energy business.